Webchat Transcript Messages 36 - 257

Galileo:

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Webmaster@quest : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:31PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [36 ]
It is about 3:30PM PST. Hang on until 4 for your Questions. If things get
too heavy, we'll start moderating - which means we'll pick and choose which
questions get posted. We don't want to do that - so please be considerate of
everyone.

 alfredo : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:32PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [37 ]
Thank you! I'm in Italy

 Sandy: moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:33PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [38 ]
Oliver: Wonderful! Look forward to "talking" to you in about 25 minutes :-)

 Webmaster@quest : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:34PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [39 ]
We will post an "official" We are started at 4. This is our first attemtp at
using the "Commercial" version of "Webchat" which has a 100 user
simultaneous limit. Please don't send pictures, as this slows things down!
Also keep your refresh rate low. Once a minute should be O.K.

 Hans : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:35PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [40 ]
Hello there, will come back in half an hour. See you. :-)

 Billy Biggs : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:36PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [41 ]
This is a test...

 Sandy: moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:40PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [42 ]
You're in Billy. See you in about 20 mins. (4 p.m.)

 [Image]   Billy Biggs : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:48PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
          [43 ]
Config question, just to be safe: Should I refrain from using the refresh
rate options and the URL tags, or how much of this system should we be
taking advantage of?

 Karen (ARC) : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:50PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [44 ]
Hi Sandy....can you give me a call?

 Chris, moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:50PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [45 ]
Billy, please refrain from sending in pictures and using the URL tags.
Thanks.

 Sandy: moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:51PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [46 ]
Bill, Please don't use photos, they slow things down. Also refresh on manual
- i.e. 0 and hit the button every minute or so.

 Billy Biggs : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:51PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [47 ]
Chris: Will do, thanks. ;-)

 Sandy: moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:53PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [48 ]
Hello everyone: 10 more minutes!

 Randy : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:55PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [49 ]
Hello

 Randy : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:56PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [50 ]
HAve you started yet?

 Sandy: moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:56PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [51 ]
Randy: We'll be starting at 4 p.m. 3 more minutes...

 Randy : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:57PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [52 ]
WASSUP?

 Randy : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:58PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [53 ]
OK

 Dillon : . . . . Wed, May 15, 3:59PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [54 ]
Good afternoon

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:00PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [55 ]
Hello, I'm on line.I am the Galileo Project Scientist.

 Dillon : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:01PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [56 ]
Good afternoon

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:01PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [57 ]
That is I'm the Galileo Probe Project Scientist.

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engineer (Hughes) : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:01PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [58 ]
good afternoon

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:02PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [59 ]
Hi everybody!

 Billy Biggs : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:02PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [60 ]
Will transcripts of this chat be available afterwards?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:02PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [61 ]
Hi Dillon, what would you like to know?

 A Student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:02PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [62 ]
Hello

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:03PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [63 ]
Hello, hello... My name is Charlie Sobeck, and I am the Galileo Probe
Engineering Manager and am here to answer your questions tonight!

 A Student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:03PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [64 ]
Are you pleased with the mission, on the whole?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:04PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [65 ]
The edited transcript will be available on the button page.

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engineer (Hughes) : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:04PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [66 ]
Hi! My name is Dan Carlock, and I work on the Probe Engineering Team too. I
work for Charlie and answer the questions that are too tough for him ;-)

 A Student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:05PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [67 ]
So, were you pleased with the mission?

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:06PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [68 ]
We were VERY pleased with the mission!

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:07PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [69 ]
To student. Yes we are very pleased with the mission.It has given us the
sort of information we've never had before.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:07PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [70 ]
There were certainly problems to overcome, and not everything went as
planned, but it was still a highly successful mission that returned lots of
interesting data!

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:07PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [71 ]
Sandy, may I ask my question now ?

 A Student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:07PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [72 ]
Like what?

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:07PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [73 ]
Sandy, may I ask my question now ?

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:07PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [74 ]
Sandy, may I ask my question now ?

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:08PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [75 ]
Sandy, may I ask my question now ?

 Galileo Orbiter AACS Backroom (Steve Collins) : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:08PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [76 ]
Here's a question for Rich: Can you recap the story of Andy Ingersol's bet
regarding water in Jupiter's atmosphere? Did win or have to pay up?

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:08PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [77 ]
Oliver, go ahead and ask your questions.

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:08PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [78 ]
Sandy, may I ask my question now ?

 A Student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:08PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [79 ]
Go ahead!

 Dan Carlock, Probe Sys. Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:09PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [80 ]
Some folks seemed to be disappointed that we didn't make 75 minutes. But
that was always a goal, never a requirement. We did surpass our design
limits, as well as our requirement to get past 10 bars pressure level...

 Dillon : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:09PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [81 ]
Have there been any unexpected discoveries from the data from the probe?

 Noring, Student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:10PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [82 ]
Which part of the probe data was most interesting?

 evp : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:10PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [83 ]
Did we ever get a good explanation as to why the probe started transmitting
at a lower altitude than it was designed to?

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:10PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [84
]
Is their any plans to release any of the raw data recieved from the probe to
the internet? (Or is this done already?)

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:10PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [85 ]
Sorry to all for those multiple messages ... My question was what the
scientist's opinion is now regarding the represntativity of the probe entry
site as compared to "typical" jovian conditions. I heard there was some
debate about this. Where are we now in this respect ?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:11PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [86 ]
Steve: Andy Ingersoll bet with anyone who would bet $10 that Galileo would
find large amounts of water on Jupiter in the form of clouds. He based this
prediction on modeling the impact features from the impact of comet SL9.
Unfortuantely Andy is now having to pay up because we found Jupiter was
found to be dry.

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:11PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [87 ]
Sorry to all for those multiple messages ... My question was what the
scientist's opinion is now regarding the represntativity of the probe entry
site as compared to "typical" jovian conditions. I heard there was some
debate about this. Where are we now in this respect ?

 pete (mech eng grad student) : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:12PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [88 ]
(excuse me interrupting if this isn't moderated) What's the latest theory on
why the probe parachute didn't open on time? Was the upper atmosphere data
lost really important to people?

 Randy : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:12PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [89 ]
are there any plans for another mission into the atmosphere?

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:12PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [90 ]
evp, yes we now clearly know why the probe began collecting data from lower
in the atmosphere. The acceleration switches that sensed the entry into the
atmosphere were wired backwards! An embarrassing error, and one we thought
we had carefully tested for, but an error that occured nonetheless.

 Dan : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:13PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [91 ]
evp: yes we do have an explanation as to why the deployment occurred lower
than expected (53 s late). An investigation of past test records seems to
support the hypothesis that the G-switches were cross-wired during Probe
integration and test.

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:13PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [92 ]
Oliver: the probe entered Jupiter in what is known as a 5 micron hotsopt....
Rich could tell you some more about it, but in these areas, ther e are not
as many clouds at that level in the atmopshere as there are over the rest of
the planet.

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:13PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [93 ]
How was the probe calibrated? How do you know that your measurements are all
correct ? Did the low H2O value get corroborated by more than one experiment
??

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:14PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [94
]
Monika/Rich/Whoever: Why was the probe sent into a spot where there are
fewer clouds? Better view? :)

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:14PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [95 ]
Randy, people have already started talking about future missions and what we
might want to do (what I've heard is that the scientists want to do a deep
probe next), but there are no firm plans, nor even ay firm proposals that
I've heard of yet.

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:15PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [96 ]
billy: the probe's entry site was not something that the galileo team could
control very well. They didn't have a whole lot of choice once they saw it
heading for that area!

 Drew : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:15PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [97 ]
Hello everone. May I ask, what exactly is the probe going to do in Jupiter's
atmosphere? Wouldn't it just burn up?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:16PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [98 ]
Dillon: Probably the most unexpected finding was how dry Jupiter apparently
was where the probe entered. A lot of people are scratching their heads over
that one.

 Dan : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:16PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [99 ]
Billy, the hot spot wasn't targeted; just the luck of the draw. It's my
understanding that it represented only 1 percent of Jupiter's atmosphere,
though 15 percent at the equatorial regions.

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:16PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [100 ]
I think the general concensus was that they would have rather sampled a part
of the atmosphere that was more typical of jupiter as a whole, but these 5
micron hotsopt only cover about 1% of the planet.

 Randy : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:17PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [101 ]
Are you planning on landing on the jovian moons?

 Tom Ford physics, teacher : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:17PM PDT (-0700 GMT). .
. [102 ]
Is there any plan to share mission results among high school classrooms on
CD or VHS video?

 Student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:17PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [103 ]
THat would be nice.

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:18PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[104 ]
Dan/?: Was that bad luck, or is this an indication that the makeup of
Jupiter's atmosphere is much thinner (don't know if that's the right word)
then expected?

 [Image]   Jane Rigby, entering freshman in astronomy (Penn State) : . . . .
          Wed, May 15, 4:18PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [105 ]
How did the previous Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact affect interpretations of the
results, or at least your preconceptions about Jupiter?

 Dennis Ting : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:18PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [106 ]
Hello this is a test. Monika I did not forget.

 Dennis Ting : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:19PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [107 ]
Hello this is a test. Monika I did not forget.

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:19PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [108 ]
Hi Dennis!

 Chris, moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:19PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [109 ]
Please don't include pictures in your posts as they consume bandwidth.

 Dan : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:20PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [110 ]
IMHO, just bad luck. But, below five or six bars I'm told it doesn't matter
anyway.

 evp : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:20PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [111 ]
How far past the nominal end of mission have the orbital dudes calculated
Galileo's trajectory? Is it conceivable that the mission could generate
useful science for many years thereafter? How about plans to revisit Io
after the main mission is over and we can afford the risk of dipping into
the rediation belt again?

 Webmaster@quest : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:21PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [112 ]
To Tom Ford- this server button is devoted to sharing NASA with the K-12
community. Online from Jupiter is just one of our events - which also
include Passport to Knowledge projects like Live from the Hubble Space
Telescope(Video). 

 Dennis Ting : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:21PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [113 ]
Hello this is a test. Monika I did not forget.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:22PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [114 ]
Drew, much of the Probe did burn up when it entered. But we expected this
and designed a heatshield that protected the interior until it had slowed to
a more moderate speed. The heatshield ws then jettisoned and the instrument
packaged dropped down through the atmosphere on a parachute.

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:22PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [115 ]
Jane: I don't think that shoemaker/levy 9 interfered at all with the probe's
entry or data retrieved. Jupiter swallowed that comet without even a burp!
the marks left behind after the impact persists for several months after the
event but all trace of the impact is long gone.

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:23PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [116 ]
Randy: Not in the near future are we planning to land on the jovian moons.
If for example Europa turns out to have a liguid water ocean beneath the
water ice crust we see, people have suggested that primitive life forms
might exist there. But we have to see if there really is liquid water ocean
there first.

 Jane Rigby, entering freshman in astronomy (Penn State) : . . . . Wed, May
15, 4:23PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [117 ]
How did the Shoemaker Levy 9 impact affect interpretation of the Galileo
data, or at least preconceptions about that data?

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:23PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [118 ]
Did the probe (while still functioning) reach a level where sunlight doesn't
come through ?

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:23PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [119 ]
So, Dr Young, was the low H2O value corroborated with more than one
instrument ??

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:24PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [120 ]
Did the probe (while still functioning) reach a level where sunlight doesn't
come through ?

 Dennis Ting, Programmer at Physicians' Online : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:25PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [121 ]
This is a first for me I hope this isn't too confusing. Sorry for all the
repeats. What engine are you using to make possible this chat? I think the
information that you guys are compiling is very fascinating.

 Chuck : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:25PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [122 ]
Rich: Is there any chance that you'll be able to determine if there is
liquid water on Europa from this mission?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:25PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [123 ]
Jane: The SL9 impact led us to believe there might be thick water clouds on
Jupiter in order to explain the way certain features moved away from the
impact site. But so far it looks like Jupiter is dry.

 Jane Rigby, entering freshman in astronomy (Penn State) : . . . . Wed, May
15, 4:25PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [124 ]
Monika: I know the probe didn't land anywhere near where the cometary impact
zones were. What I meant was, after the SL9 crash, many astronomers were
supplying ideas about what that collision showed about Jupiter's atmosphere.
To what extent has the Galileo probe supported/disproved these ideas?

 Dennis Ting, Programmer at Physicians' Online : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:25PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [125 ]
This is a first for me I hope this isn't too confusing. Sorry for all the
repeats. What engine are you using to make possible this chat? I think the
information that you guys are compiling is very fascinating.

 Pierre : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:25PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [126 ]
Do you plan in a near future to do an other attempt to unfurl the high gain
antenna ?

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engineer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:25PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [127 ]
Oliver: Yes, however, the Probe also descended through a location in
Jupiter's atmosphere which rotated to the nightside about 30 minutes past
entry.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:25PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [128 ]
evp... The Galileo Orbiter trajectory is calculated for the first eleven
orbits (though it will be periodically updated as we refine our knowledge of
the orbital parameters. Likely as not, there will be lots of fuel and useful
life left over after the planned mission is completed. What we will dd after
this is not yet decided, but rest assured that we will keep it flying. A
return to Io is likely to be near the top of the list of things to do.

 Jeff Bourdeau : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:26PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [129 ]
how do you increase the delay here?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:26PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [130 ]
Chuck: That's the hope. By looking at very high resolution pictures of
Europa and studying its composition.

 Noring, Student at Linkšping Institute of Technology, Sweden : . . . . Wed,
May 15, 4:26PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [131 ]
Did Galileo manage to capture all probe data?

 Jane Rigby, entering freshman in astronomy (Penn State) : . . . . Wed, May
15, 4:27PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [132 ]
Rich: Are you referring to the horseshoe crab-like ring around the impact
zone shortly after impact?

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:27PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [133 ]
Jane: OK thanks for the clarification! I think Rich answered it for you!

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:27PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [134 ]
Oliver... yes. By the end of the mission the probe was below the level of
sunlight penetration. In fact, the rotation of the planet took the probe
onto the night side before the probe mission ended.

 Chris, moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:28PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [135 ]
Dennis-we are using Webchat software to facilitate this chat. More
information on the software is available by clicking on the link at the
bottom of this page which will take you to the webchat homepage.

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:28PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[136 ]
Are there plans to release the raw probe data to the internet community?

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:28PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [137 ]
WIll we try to unfurl the antenna again? No. We are done with that now. We
made our last attempt several weeks ago. It didn't work.

 Webmaster@quest : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:28PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [138 ]
To Dennis Ting - We are using the Commercial Version of "WebChat, -1.9" You
can find out more about the product by going to the button WBS home page.
Our version can support 100 simultaneous users - this is the fisrt time we
are using it - so far so good. It is handling 40 with no problem.

 Chris, moderator : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:28PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [139 ]
Jeff-is the screen refreshing too fast for you?

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:29PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [140 ]
Thanks, Dan. One of the implications was wether it was the atmosphere itself
that was becoming opaque, or just the night ?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:29PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [141 ]
Noring, student: We captured essentially all the probe data.

 Metric A/S, Norway : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:29PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [142
]
Hello, I am just a listener working with different types of instrumentation
in my daily work. I just want to say that the team have done a technical
good job with hardware from the 70'ties. Has everyone worked for the team
since the beginning ?

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engineer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:29PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [143 ]
Noring- all data was returned except for about three minutes (11 to 14
minutes past descent) of tape data. But that portion was already redundantly
covered by an earlier playback of Probe-only symbols data so we didn't lose
any descent science. Just a little bit of radio science.

 Jeff Bourdeau : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:30PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [144 ]
yes, it is

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:30PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [145 ]
Oliver, the science guys say they say the sunlight disappear before we went
into the night.

 Jeff Bourdeau : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:31PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [146 ]
how do you change it??????????

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:31PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [147 ]
So will someone tell me whether the low H2O value was given by more than one
experiment ? Thank you.

 Webmaster@quest : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:31PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [148 ]
To ALL slow up rate by putting ) or blank in refresh box. When zero or
blank, refresh occurs only when you hit the "CHAT" button. Do this about
every 30 to 60 seconds. We have over 40 people chatting so be patient -
listen more often then post! ;-)

 Dennis Ting, Programmer at Physicians' Online : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:31PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [149 ]
How massive was SL9 compared to Jupiter and did Galileo recorded any
information?

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:31PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [150 ]
Hello, I'm Marcie Smith, the Probe Manager at Ames.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:32PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [151 ]
Metric, there has been a lot of turnover amongst the personnel, but
fortunately there are still an awful lot of people who have been working on
the program for 10, 15, 20 years or more! I began working on Galileo in
1979.

 Jane Rigby, entering freshman in astronomy (Penn State) : . . . . Wed, May
15, 4:33PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [152 ]
Charlie: Could you tell us more about your background in space science?

 Dave Allard : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:33PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [153 ]
Will this probe data shape the future probes on missions like Cassini? (to
Saturn, another gas giant)

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:33PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [154 ]
Metric A/S: Some people have worked on the project since the beginning, but
since the project has gone on for so long, there has been significant
turnover.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:35PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [155 ]
Jane, I graduated from UC, Berkeley with a degree in Electrical Engineering.
I have learned space science from the Galileo scientist (albeit
imperfectly).

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:35PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [156 ]
Explorer: Several instrument results are consistent with a dry atmosphere.
Temperature structure, net radiative flux, no water cloud detected by the
nephelometer.

 Noring, Student at Linkšping Institute of Technology, Sweden : . . . . Wed,
May 15, 4:35PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [157 ]
What kind of computers were onboard the probe (processor type, memory space,
speed etc.) and what programming languages were used?

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:36PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [158 ]
Dave, you asked about whether the Galileo Probe will help design missions
like Cassini. We have met with Cassini people to tell them of some of our
performance, but their design is somewhat different that Jupiter, since they
are entering Titan's atmosphere, not Saturn's.

 jeff bourdeau : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:37PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [159 ]
charlie, how do you feel about the technology used in the probe/orbiter
then? Is there data you could have obtained easily with 90' technology that
was not possible with what wasin the assembly?

 Jane Rigby, entering freshman in astronomy (Penn State) : . . . . Wed, May
15, 4:37PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [160 ]
Monika: Where are you a student?

 : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:37PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [161 ]
So, Rich, it was a dry adiabatic lapse rate ? Was that comfirmed by more
than one instrument too ? Was there a mass spectrometer on the probe that
did not see water, also ?

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:37PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [162 ]
Engineering question : It is perhaps perfectly normal, but I'm still amazed
as how the probe's batteries could be operating after all these years. What
was the magic ? I wish my car could do the same.

 : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:37PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [163 ]
hi...is this working?

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:37PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [164 ]
Noring, the Probe used a rad-hardened RCA 1802 µP which clocks out commands
up to 8 times per second. It had two strings, or channels...

 jeff bourdeau : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:37PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [165 ]
I mean 90's (1990) technology

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:38PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [166 ]
Dennis: SL9 was was probably mostly ice, about 1-2 km in diameter before it
broke up. So mass wise it was very small compared to Jupiter. Galileo did
make observations of the impact. Galileo had the only direct line of site of
the impact events.

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:38PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [167 ]
Jane: I am a student at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in New York, but I
am doing all of my thesis research at NASA Ames.

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:39PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [168 ]
Oliver, You asked about the battery performance. The batteries on the Probe
are non-rechargeable batteries, unlike your car battery. We never really
used them at all until Probe release 150 days before entry. We did extensive
testing of the same lot of batteries here at Ames over the last 15 years.

 Jane Rigby, entering freshman in astronomy (Penn State) : . . . . Wed, May
15, 4:39PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [169 ]
Monika: What's the subject of your thesis?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:40PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [170 ]
Explorer: Yes, the nuetral mass spectrometer was the primary means by which
we showed the atmosphere was dry.I have gotten so used to that that I forgot
to mention it.

 Diana H : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:40PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [171 ]
Hi again, sorry....I am kinda new at this. I had some questions about The
helium-hydrogen ratio on jupitor

 Bob : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:40PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [172 ]
test

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:40PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[173 ]
Is there any source available for attaining the raw probe data?

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:40PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [174 ]
Jeff, one of the things you have to learn very early in this business is
that you will always be stuck using outdated technology. First off, you need
high reliability and the new stuff usually has a lot of flaws early on,
second, you are operating in some very bad environments (thermal, radiation,
etc.). Finally, the missions take a long time (especially the outer
planets). It's just something we have to live with. But each new mission
uses better technology than the last, so we're always improving!

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:41PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [175 ]
Jane: I am doing research on the chemistry of several different regions of
space, including the early solar system.

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:41PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [176 ]
Diana: go ahead

 Dennis : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:41PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [177 ]
What conclusions have you made about the events leading to SL9's demise?

 elmo : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:41PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [178 ]
Hi Monika: This is Elmo Dadog I read a sci-fi story once that there were
these floating whale creatures in the Jovian atmosphere. Did Galileao find
any evidence for this.

 Noring, Student at Linkšping Institute of Technology, Sweden : . . . . Wed,
May 15, 4:42PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [179 ]
Dan Carlock, Okay. What functions were performed by the computer? I guess
8IPS doesn't allow for very much? :)

 spider : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:43PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [180 ]
why is 1 bar used to reference everything in the science articles....do we
know at what altitude the measurements were made? What kind of things do we
know about that and to what resolution?

 Diana H : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:43PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [181 ]
Rich, in one of the articles on the web, it said that the levels of helium
on jupitor is less than they thought it would be. Another thing they
mentioned was that the levels of hydrogen was more...One article says that
the ratio is 14% but in another one it says it's 6%. Which one is true?

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:43PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [182 ]
Hi Elmo... I thought that was your proposal topic for your NRC appointment!

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:43PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [183 ]
Thanks for the answer about the batteries. I didn't know you could keep them
in storage for so long. Was there a decay from nominal (i.e brand new)
performance when they were used, and how much ?

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:44PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[184 ]
Monika: Could you maybe just briefly discuss what the probe results indicate
as far as early chemistry of the solar system?

 elmo : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:44PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [185 ]
touche'

 SciWri : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:45PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [186 ]
Would your current probes and computer equipment glean considerably more
equipment about Jupiter thant he ones that were sent aboard Galileo? Gary
Robbins, science writer, The Orange County Register

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:46PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [187 ]
Diana: Before we got to Jupiter we thought that Helium was depleted on
Jupiter relative to its abundance on the Sun. We found that Jupiter has
about the same abundance of helium relative to hydrogen as on the sun.
Saturn is quite depleted, and it has the 6% value, not Jupiter.

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:46PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [188 ]
Oliver, The actual flight lot of batteries were built just before launch, in
1989. We had 9 lots built before that, many of which were very similar, and
we used all of them to estimate aging effects on battery capacity. We
estimated that the capacity lost was about 5% or so from the flight lot.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:46PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [189 ]
Spider, we have to measure altitude from somewhere, there is no surface. 1
bar is a good reference because it is Earth normal at sealevel so it is well
understood. We defined entry as being 450 km above that reference, and we
survived down to about 160 km below it. I'd have to check on our altitude
resolution, but Rich estimates it as about 100 meters.

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:47PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [190 ]
Noring, the computer performed three basic functions: commanding, data
processing, and telemetry. Each string uplinked data from the six on-board
instruments, plus the engineering subsystems, at 128 bps. However, the
datastreams were convolutionally encoded before being passed to the
commlink, using R=1/2, C=7, and so the actual data was uplinked at 256
symbols/sec/string.

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:47PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [191 ]
Billy: well, so far (and Rich, stop me if I don't get this right!) the probe
results seem to indicate that Jupiter's elemental composition is very
similar to that of the sun. The ratios of the elements (such as He) to
hydrogen were similar to those values for the sun.

 Dennis Ting, programmer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:47PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[192 ]
Hi Monika, it's getting dark at these parts (east coast that is)

 : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:47PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [193 ]
Any unexpected chemicals found ?

 Tom Ford physics, teacher : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:48PM PDT (-0700 GMT). .
. [194 ]
Is there any plan to share mission results among high school classrooms on
CD or VHS video?

 Diana H : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:48PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [195 ]
Rich, Were there also any D2 found? Also, how much heat does the conversion
of H2 to He produce, I am assuming that that is what produces heat on
jupitor, please correct meif i am wrong

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:49PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [196 ]
Hey, Bob Mc , is that you lurking ? (this is Rocket)

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:49PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[197 ]
Monika: Maybe you can estimate for me a little on what kinds of reactions
take place in Jupiter's atmosphere, and their similarities to the sun?

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:49PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [198 ]
... on the command side of things, we executed a PROM-loaded flight sequence
of 220 steps which controlled the Probe engineering and scientific
subsystems from "timeout zero" (about six hours before entry) till end of
mission.

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:49PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [199 ]
Monika: Helium was about solar, but carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur are several
times their abundance in the sun. Oxygen seems to be highly depleted.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:49PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [200 ]
Sci Wtr, There would not be an awful lot of improvement using newer
technology in the probe, however, having the data in hand now we might very
well choose a different suite of instruments to measure different things.
But that's hindsight.

 pete (mech eng grad student) : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:50PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [201 ]
guys, now that you've pulled off the probe mission, when do you think we'll
get more data points? could we do a Discovery-style "cheaper, quicker,
dirtier" mission in the next five years?

 spider : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:50PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [202 ]
why is 1 bar used to identify the altitude of all the measurements?

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:50PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [203 ]
Marcie: thanks. Another Question : I have read somewhere that actual entry
thermal conditions coud not be really simulated on Earth before the flight.
Was the confidence built on extrapolating the results of ground simulations,
or adding a huge safety margin "for the unknown ?

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:50PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [204 ]
Tom, We are developing several education packages on the Probe results, some
for the computer, some not. We have some video sequences, but none
specifically for education yet. The overall project also has many
educational resources (slides for instance). The raw probe data will be
released to the public after one year for the investigators to validate and
calibrate it all.

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:51PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[205 ]
Rich: Interesting. In what forms were these chemicals found? (I'm assuming
nitrogen was present in ammonia clouds, what about the others?)

 Dennis Ting, programmer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:51PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[206 ]
Rich: What kind of staff do you carry on a project?

 Monika Kress, astrophysics PhD student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:51PM PDT
(-0700 GMT). . . [207 ]
Billy, some more about your question on the chemistry of the early solar
system. The abundances of some of the heavier elements were enriched over
the solar value (such as Carbon and nitrogen) and oxygen was quite depleted.
The probe data obtained from Jupiter tells us a lot about what the early
solar nebula was like...

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:51PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [208 ]
eureka! I found an article I posted earlier concerning the computer. I'll
post it in snippets...

 evp : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:51PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [209 ]
What special engineering techniques does one use to design something that
has to survive 300 Gees during reentry?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:51PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [210 ]
Spider: We use 1 bar because it just seems to be a logical choice. But it is
arbitrary. We could have used any pressure level to define zero altitude,
since there is no solid surface.

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:52PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [211 ]
The Galileo Probe was designed and built with mid-1970's vintage
space-qualified microprocessor hardware intended for radiation-hostile
environments. The heart of the command and data handling system for the
Galileo Probe was the dual-string Data and Command Processor (DCP). Each
string had its own microcontroller (CPU). The hardware chosen for the design
was RCA CDP 1802D COSMAC microcontroller, a one chip, 40 pin, CMOS, 8 bit,
register-oriented unit with high noise immunity and generous temperature
tolerances. The primary reasons for the selection of the 1802 for the DCP
were its extremely low power consumption, radiation-hardened CMOS technology
(at least 5e4 rads),and small package size.

 Broadclyst,UK : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:52PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [212 ]
Have we got any pictures back from Jupiter yet? (for Ali Ali, Age 6)

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:52PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [213 ]
Pete, There are currently no more missions sequenced for Jupiter. We do
expect to get lots of remote sensing data from the Orbiter over the next 2
years of course, which will greatly enhance the Probe results for global
interpretation. I have heard talk of some ideas that people might propose
for new Jupiter probes, but nothing has really even been proposed, much less
selected yet.

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:53PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [214 ]
Ali Ali, The first pictures will be back in late June. The orbiter flies by
Ganymeade on June 27 and we expect to start getting pictures of Jupiter and
Ganymeade then. There were no pictures taken at encounter and the Probe took
no pictures.

 Dennis Ting, programmer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:53PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[215 ]
Dan: If you were to build a probe now, what sorts of instrumentation and
hardware would you carry?

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:53PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [216 ]
The command rate never exceeded 8 per second, only half of the descent timer
rate. The code was all written in machine language. The computer program
used by the Data and Command Processor (DCP) was the "Science, Telemetry and
Command Program (STCP)". It was written in RCA 1802 Microprocessor Assembly
Language. In its entireity, the written code was compiled, crosslinked and
loaded as 7644 words (93 percent of allocated 8K Bipolar PROM) per string.

 Diana H : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:54PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [217 ]
Another question....i read somewhere the water content of Jupitor based on
solar levels...I was just wondering what is the water content of earth based
on solar level?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:54PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [218 ]
Dennis: It depends on what phase of the mission we were at. During
development there were many scientists and engineers invloved. After launch
mission control people more or less relaced them. The scientists were
involved from the beginning and will stay invovled for some time. All told,
about 10,000 people have worked on Galileo.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:54PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [219 ]
Oliver, we extrapolated to the Jupiter entry conditions from the ground
tests we could do, and augmented that with analysis, then added as much
margin as we could afford! The end result, though, was that our estimates
were quite good. The mass lost from the probe during entry was essentially
what was predicted (though oddly, at a different time than we expected),
though the distribution of mass loss over the probe appears to have been
different from expectations (less lost from the nose, more from the skirt).

 : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:54PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [220 ]
One of the probes that will be sent to Mars will send back daily weather
info that will be posted on the Web. Any chance in the future of getting
similar information from Jupiter?

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:55PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [221 ]
Will we get photos by the day of Ganymede encounter ? Or soon after ? All
this waiting is getting too suspenseful !!

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:56PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[222 ]
Rich/Monika: How much information about the chemical structure of Jupiter's
atmosphere was known previous to the probe's entry? Where many theories shot
down?

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:56PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [223 ]
evp, special engineering techniques to survive 300 g's include high strength
materials, beefy structures and some judicial use of orientation.

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:56PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [224 ]
Rich, those 10000 people : a very good use of tax money.

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:57PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [225 ]
Dennis... that's really a question for the scientists. But from an
engineering perspective, things would be a lot smaller. And the processors
more powerful... Perhaps we would also elect to pursue usage of special
high-temperature electronics that could "take the heat": there's been some
breakthrougths lately that could have doubled our max. operational temps.

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:57PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [226 ]
Explorer, I think we will get Ganymeade pictures back about a week after
encounter, so say about July 4 or so.

 Dennis Ting, programmer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:57PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[227 ]
Rich: Wow, that is a lot of people. Are the engineers working full time,
contracted by NASA, or what.

 SciWri : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:58PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [228 ]
Buzz Aldrin is about to release "Times of Tibor", a sci-fi novel that
centers on Jupiter. Did he or his ghost-writer confer with the Galileo team
during the writing process? Gary Robbins, OC Register

 Dave Allard : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:58PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [229 ]
]] All told, about 10,000 people have worked on Galileo. I worked on a
special SBUS serial board for JPL for Galileo. I have no idea what they used
it for though.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:58PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [230 ]
Photos from the orbiter will not be immediate, but they will come faster
than the probe data, and more frequently. Stay tuned... the wait is almost
over!

 Noring, Student at Linkšping Institute of Technology, Sweden : . . . . Wed,
May 15, 4:58PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [231 ]
Dan Carlock, that's very impressive! Although you are working with the
probe, do you know how the Galileo computer operates?

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:58PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [232 ]
Diana: It is sort of like comparing apples and oranges. The Earth has very
little hydrogen relative to the sun. Most of it has escaped from the Earth.
So water relative to hydrogen is large on the Earth, but most of the Earth
is rock. On the Earth the more relevant question is what are isotopic ratios
as compared to the sun.

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:58PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [233 ]
How did they test the probe to see if it would survive such an incredibly
fast and intense entry ? How did they know it wouldn't break up after 100 g
's ?

 Yvonne Pendleton Astrophysicist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:58PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [234 ]
Hi, I am an infrared astonomer and I study the composition of the
interstellar medium and how stars form. I observe from telescopes all over
the world. I am not involved directly in the Galileo mission, but I'd be
happy to chat about it with you.

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:59PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [235 ]
SciWri, he didn't talk to me!

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:59PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [236 ]
Someone asked about daily "weather from Jupiter" updates on the Web. The
Orbiter Project office is at the Jet Propulsion Lab (not here at Ames). They
have an excellent web page and you should check it, because I bet they will
do something like that, although probably not with daily updates....

 Broadclyst,UK : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:59PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [237 ]
In Arthur C Clarke's novel 2010 the story has Jupiter 'going critical' with
nuclear fusion. Leaving aside the the more fanciful parts of the the plot:
Could fusion start in Jupiter? Are there any indication that it is not
stable in this sense, perhaps achieving critical mass after (say) colliding
with a moon? (for Chris Hunneyball)

 Dennis Ting, programmer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:59PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[238 ]
Rich: Wow, that is a lot of people. Are the engineers working full time,
contracted by NASA, or what.

 Jeff Cuzzi, NASA : . . . . Wed, May 15, 4:59PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [239 ]
Greetings all - I'm not on the Galileo project but do work on planetary
formation, planetary rings, and comets. Happy to answer anything I can.

 Oliver : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:00PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [240 ]
Charlie: thanks. Was there a risk that at some point in the entry
trajectory, high-speed jovian winds would cause the probe to tumble out of
control ?

 Jane Rigby, entering freshman (astrophysics) at Penn State : . . . . Wed,
May 15, 5:00PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [241 ]
Yvonne: For what organization do you work?

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:01PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [242 ]
Hi, Jeff ! I am a fan of yours. You do great work ! What do you think of the
Galileo results (water scarcity, etc.) ?

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:01PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[243 ]
Yvonne/Rich/Monika: Could one of you outline what is known about the
chemical makeup of Jupiter's atmosphere, and how much the probe contributed
to this knowledge?

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:01PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [244 ]
Explorer, we tested individual probe components on a centrifuge to as high
as 350 g's. But once fully assembled, the probe was too massive to be spun
that high on any centrifuge in the world. We did test it to about 200 g's on
a large centrifuge at Sandia national lab.

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:01PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [245 ]
Billy: We knew that Jupiter was mostly helium and hydrogen. But we really
didn't know how much water, sulfur, or noble gases there were. Also we
didn't know very well key isotopic ratios. Additionally, we didn't know what
causes the colors on Jupiter. Hopefully with more data analysis we can get
some answers on that.

 : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:02PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [246 ]
test

 Dennis, space fan : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:02PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [247 ]
So what happens to the probe now? Can this probe make it out of the solar
system, and if so, how far will it go before we finally lose contact?

 Perry Ga. Tech Physics undergrad : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:02PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [248 ]
Have any Galileo scientists offered theories that the iron core of Io might
be producing a small magnetic field?

 Dan Carlock, Probe Systems Engr. : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:03PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [249 ]
Noring, the Orbiter also uses the 1802 microprocessors, but in a distributed
suite, over both the spun and despun portions.

 Marcie Smith, Probe Manager : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:03PM PDT (-0700 GMT).
. . [250 ]
Oliver, The Probe was spin stablized at 10 rpm to maintain its orientation
during entry. We did worry a bit that we had the orientation correct - so
the heat shield would have 0 deg angle of attack at entry. The winds were
not really an issue, since the probe entered at a relative speed of 48 km/s
and the winds are about 200 m/s.

 Explorer : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:03PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [251 ]
Dear Ames people, please post somewhere a transcript of this chat when it's
done. the amount of info flying by here is enormous and very interesting !
And tell us what address y ou will put it in. Thanks.

 Billy Biggs, student : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:03PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . .
[252 ]
Rich: Is the raw data publicly available anywhere?

 Diana H : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:03PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [253 ]
Rich, ahhh...I see. I just wanted to develope an image in my head of the
magnitude. Why is the discovery of the helium/hydrogen ratio as compared to
sun so important?

 Perry Ga. Tech Physics undergrad : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:03PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [254 ]
Have any Galileo scientists offered theories that the iron core of Io might
be producing a small magnetic field?

 Broadclyst,UK : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:03PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [255 ]
If we live on Jupiter (say) and sent the probe to Earth - how much would we
have found out about the Earth? (for Chris Hunneyball)

 Charlie Sobeck, Probe Engineering : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:04PM PDT (-0700
GMT). . . [256 ]
Dennis, the "probe" entered the Jupiter atmosphere and after about an hour,
finally cooked itself to death. The orbiting portion of the spacecraft is
currently in orbit around Jupiter and will remain there for several years.
Eventually, it too will enter the atmospohere and burn up.

 Rich Young, Galileo Probe Project Scientist : . . . . Wed, May 15, 5:05PM
PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [257 ]
Dennis: Most engineers are no longer working full time on Galileo, now that
the mission is in progress. Probably there are only about a few hundred.