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LHST Overview


Imaging lessons for teachers

Table of contents
Notes to first time imaging Teacher
An Introduction to Image Processing - a Primer
Lesson 1 - Jupiter Blues


Notes to first time imaging Teacher for Imaging lessons

Helpful hints!

1)  Make sure you have gone through a dry run of these 4 mini lessons.  That way
if you have problems you will not have them with 30 students breathing down
your neck.

2)  Make copies of all image files ("file to duplicate" whatever file is
selected or highlighted) you let the students use.  Again, do not use your
original image files.  The reason for this is that your students will no doubt
change the images.  If they accidentally save the changed image with the same
file name as the original, you will need to have a backup image file available.

3)  Allocate the appropriate amount of memory for each lesson.  
Lessons 1a, b and d use only one Image.  That image is about 640 kilobytes.   
Lesson 1c uses two small images (less then 60k).
To take actions that require undo/clipboard/buffer use, set the clip board to 
640kb.  To do this go to the options menu, after starting NIH Image.  In the 
options menu you will find an item called "Preferences".  Once you select 
preferences you can set the undo/clipboard/buffer to whatever you want.  
The program itself requires about 3300 Kilobytes (3.3 megabytes), 
depending on what version of NIH Image you have (for instance NIH Image 
version 1.57 asks for 4,000 Kilobytes, for a Mac LC type of Mac)

4)  If this is the first time your learners have seen an image of another
planet, on the computer, be prepared for some "Wows." 
Students  respond strongly to imaging.  Because of this 
response, I suggest you allow the students to open the image they will be 
working on and provide them with a chance to play with it for fun before they start the lesson.  I 
might add that changing the "Look Up" table, making surface plots and 
magnifying really grabs them.

5)  Middle School students (my two 7th grade classes are doing Live From Hubble
Space Telescope this semester) do not see things that might be obvious to
learners at other points in their intellectual development, so, when you ask
them to, for instance describe what they see, try white board work, prompts, word
banks, Observation banks, jig sawing and tea party techniques may help focus 
their young eyes.

___________________________________________________

An Introduction to Image Processing

A Primer for the teacher (instead of an apple;-)

A look forward: I have developed this series of small lessons to give 
learners using the Live From Hubble Space Telescope project a new set of 
skills and a new set of tools. The skill set engages learners in the 
study and analysis of computer pictures.  The tool set is a free software 
program that runs on any Mac.  That program is called NIH Image.  It is 
available everywhere on the Internet.  You will find the home address for 
this software in the lesson plan under software requirements.  You can 
also bring the software to your own Mac by going to the 
Fundamental Tools
home page.

In designing the introductory mini-lessons, I have shaped the skill and tool
sets to meet 3 criteria.  
    The first criterion is to make the lessons understandable for Mac users new to image processing in education.

    The second criterion is that when the learner has completed the lessons they will be able to study images created during the Live From Hubble project (those images are specifically of Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto).

    The third criterion is to give learners the capacity to do the same kinds of Imaging science, in parallel, with the 3 principal investigators (The scientists are known as PIs for short). They are

      Heidi Hammel(Neptune), Marc Buie (Pluto) and Reta Beebe (Jupiter).
The first criterion would never have been accomplished had it not been for my long association and training with a world class leader in the field of Image Processing in Education. This organization passed through my life, at a Computer Using Educators (CUE) Conference, at a time when I was struggling with visualizing information in the service of education. They are the Center for Image Processing in Education (CIPE) based at the University of Arizona. And if your appetite has been whetted by these lessons, please do yourself and your students a favor and make your own connection with this organization. Contact information is found in my Introduction to Imaging in Education document on the Live From Hubble Space Telescope home page. The second and third criteria have been met by discussing, with the PIs, their work, using the Hubble, on the three planets. Thanks to Heidi Hammel (Neptune), Marc Buie (Pluto) and Reta Beebe (Jupiter) as well as their teams and the Live From Hubble Space Telescope team. In addition I have read the proposals these three scientists have submitted, as applications for getting Hubble Imaging time allocated to their (and our) scientific endeavors. In the proposals the scientists submitted, they said they are "... characterizing, describing, modeling and defining through wavelength-dependent imaging, long lived cloud features, new features, discrete features, storm system changes, vertical structure and horizontal motion." As you work through the electronic field trip and do the imaging you might need the find following image information, formulas and relationships useful: cyc5red.tif -about 640kb,lossless format, image at 953 nm, taken on Oct. 5, 1995 at 10:32:16 UT cyc5blue.tif -about 640kb,lossless format, image at 410 nm, taken on Oct. 5, 1995 at 10:48:16 UT cyc5mapred.tif - about 65kb, lossy format, map projection from cyc5red.tif. Centered on -22.66 deg. latitude nad 242.57 deg. longitude. Same sampling as the other maps. cyc5mapblu.tif -about 65kb, lossy format, similar projection, same coordinates. 410 nanometers is in the blue part of the visible spectrum. 953 nanometers is in the red part of the visible spectrum. 1 Astronomical unit (AU) is the distance from the Sun to the earth. Mercury is about a third of one AU, and Pluto is about 40 AUs. The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is about 20,000 km wide, east to west. Jupiters dark bands are called "belts"and the bright bands, zones. About 11 Earth diameters is equal to one Jupiter diameter. To convert from degrees/day at the longitude relevant to the Jupiter Images I use for the mini lessons, use the following formula: 1) deg/day to km/day, multiply by 1238.52 2) deg/day to km/hour, multiply by 51.61 3) deg/day to miles/hour, multiply by 32.07 Universal time zone to Local time zone Time Zone To Convert UT to your Local Time Zone ET -5 HOURS FROM UT CT -6 MT -7 PT -8 ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Lesson Plan Lesson 1 (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d) 1a=making raw observations 1b=magnifying the image 1c=processing the image 1d=Analyzing Jupiter Lesson Plan for Activities Jupiter Blues - Making Observations: one feature, one pixel, one array at a time: An Introduction to Image Processing Target audience +/-Middle school. General Objective Introduce learners to image processing tools within NIH Image. Measurable objective Given an image of Jupiter and the software NIH Image, the student will report on their observations. Choose, from the image, a grid or array, 7 pixels by 7 pixels in size. Once chosen the student will map the x,y coordinates and the luminosity or brightness value of each pixel in their array. Finally the students will try and find each team's chosen feature. Hints given will be a 7 by 7 array of location (x,y values) and pixel values. Magnification ratio will also be stated, as will the team names. Specific tool set developed: magnifying glass, coordinate tool, grabber hand, zoom to fit (the image) button, info table, LUT, LUT tool, color tables, filtering, selection tool, using macro (to generate ascii dump of selected area of image) Specific skill set used: Opening image, moving around image, identifying and singling out pixels, processing image, observing and noting differences, features and structures, reading info window, choosing and reporting on array (group of pixels). Activity Concepts: Use of Cartesian coordinate system, scale, digital imaging and scientific endeavor. Vocabulary building: Planetary astronomy, coordinate math, tool specific (hardware, software), locating what is observed. Prerequisite skills: Macintosh driver's license. Among other fundamental Mac literacy skills, you need to know how to manage your Macintosh memory, both hard drive and RAM. You also need to know how to navigate the desktop and use the finder. Computer Painting or drawing experience helpful. Correlated Activities from Teacher's Guide Activities 2E, page 26, Pictures from Outer Space. Found in the Live From the Hubble Space Telescope Teachers Guide. Hardware Color Mac with following minimum memory available: Hard Drive needs at least 4 Megabytes free space. Ram needs at least 3.3 Megabytes free space. Software NIH Image Freeware for your particular flavor of Mac. This program is in many places on the Internet. Most Mac user groups have it. Any store that carries shareware/freeware software will have it and it is on several publicly accessible computers on the Web. NIH Image has a World Wide Web home page. To get there, point your web browser to the following address http://rsb.info.nih.gov/nih-image/Default.html Go there Now! Activity Images The images are available at the Live From Hubble Space Telescope Home page. cyc5blue w/txt.tif (lesson 1a,b,c) cyc5mapblu.tif (lesson 2d) cyc5mapred.tif (lesson 2d) jupiterWS.tif (Advanced enrichment activity. Correlated with activity 3A in the Teachers guide) go to the following address to get it http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/hst/scott/tiff/ Image Info This image file is about 640 kilobytes (KB) in size. It has 256 shades of gray. The picture is 800 pixels wide and 800 pixels high. The file format is Tagged Information File Format (TIFF). It is a picture of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Space Telescope during a picture taking event called cycle 5. The event took place on Oct 5, 1995 at 10:48:16 universal Time (UT). The image was taken through the Wide Field Planetary Camera. The photographer put a blue filter in front of the camera. With this blue filter, the image is what the camera saw at 410 nano meters (nm) of the visual spectrum. The origin is located in the left lower corner (x=0,y=0) Teaching Strategies Facilitation and management of learner learning by complex instruction set, using hands on, constructionist, exploration, teaming and cross team teaching. Learning Log format Date- Name- Period- Tools I used- What I did- What I learned- I have the following questions or problems- NIH Image Citation Analysis performed on a Macintosh computer using the public domain NIH Image program (developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available from the Internet by anonymous FTP from zippy.nimh.nih.gov or on floppy disk from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, part number PB95-500195GEI. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Lesson 1a: Jupiter Blues, Making observations: An introduction to Image Processing NOTES AND FACT SHEET FOR THE TEACHER If this is the first time your learners have seen an image of another planet, on the computer, be prepared for some "wows." Students respond strongly to imaging. Because of this response, I suggest you allow the students to open the image they will be working on and provide them with time to play with it for fun before they start the lesson. I will say that changing the Look Up table, making surface plots and magnifying really grabs them. This "playing with the image" can easily take one period. In this activity the learner is asked to make raw observations first. This may require coaching to focus learner's eyes on areas of the image. Starting a word bank to help learners describe what they are seeing helped my students. After that bank was built, we built an observation bank. Visiting a weather site on the Internet, looking at the weather report in a paper, or discussing the weather images will help jog the students memory when asked to relate what they think they are looking at with something they have seen before. Meteorological terms are appropriate in building learner ability to describe observations and speculate on what they are seeing. Planetary Facts of Jupiter: Mass (kg)............................................ 1.90 x 10^27 Diameter (km)........................................ 142,800 Mean density (kg/m^3) ............................... 1314 Escape velocity (m/sec).............................. 59500 Average distance from Sun (AU)....................... 5.203 Rotation period (length of day in Earth hours)....... 9.8 Revolution period (length of year in Earth years).... 11.86 Obliquity (tilt of axis in degrees).................. 3.08 Orbit inclination (degrees).......................... 1.3 Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular)......... 0.048 Mean surface temperature (K)......................... 120 (cloud tops) Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity)............... 0.44 Atmospheric components............................... 90% hydrogen, 10% helium, .07% methane Rings................................................ Faint ring. Infrared spectra imply dark rock fragments. Great Red Spot, Moons, zones, bands, brown oval, large white spot, scale, Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts ___________________________________________ Student Handout for Lesson 1a Jupiter Blues, Making observations: An introduction to Image Processing Your job is to analyze and report on the picture of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in Oct, 1995. You need to report to the other teams any evidence you have of the varied (heterogeneous) nature of the structures and features observed on Jupiter. Follow the directions below to analyze the image. Step 1a) Launch NIH Image. Step 2a) Go up to the File menu in the Command with your mouse. Step 3a) Drag down the file menu and let go at the word "Open". Step4a) Double click fast on the image file titled: cyc5blue w/txt.tif Step 5a) In the tools menu is a picture of a hand. This tool is called the Grabber hand. Select this tool by clicking on it once. Put your mouse arrow, now looking like the grabber hand, over the image. Hold down the mouse button and move the mouse. This is how you can move around any image. If you want to see what the entire picture looks like, click once on the Zoom box in the upper right corner of the Jupiter image window. NIH Image will change, zoom in (by scaling) the entire picture so it will fit in the window. Just click in the zoom box again if you want to see the original image. Step 6a) Describe what you see by making observation notes: Look for different colored regions, structures or features. Note in your description what direction (left, right, up and down) the features are oriented? Note in your description what areas look calm and what areas appear to have violent storm like activity. Note in your description where the feature you are describing is in relationship to the top, bottom, side or in space around the planet. After completing your observation notes, hypothesize, suggest, propose and speculate on what you think you are seeing. In other words do you think you are seeing mountains or large bodies of water (geological features) or clouds and storms (meteorological features)? Explain in your proposal what knowledge you already have or pictures you have observed in the past that leads you to state you are looking at certain planetary features? (hint- What in your background leads you to think you are looking at a planet?) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Student Handout Lesson 1b Jupiter Blues: Magnifying pixels: An introduction to Image Processing. Other tools in NIH Image let you study further the image of Jupiter. Step1b) Again start up NIH Image and open the image of Jupiter. The file is called cyc5blue w/txt.tif Step2b) In the Tools window you will see a picture of a magnifying glass. Select the magnifying glass and click at least 3 times, any where on the image. A) What information changes in the title bar when you magnify the image? Click several times on the picture. Watch the title bar of the Jupiter window as you use the magnifying glass. Now go back to the Tools window and double click fast on the magnifying glass tool. B) How do you reset the magnifying glass tool? Magnify your Jupiter image. Now hold down the key on the keyboard that has the word options written on it. With the options key down click on the image again. Let go of the options key and click again on the image. C) Describe what happens when you use the option key with the magnifying glass? NOTE-Do you notice the change in the arithmetic sign inside the magnifying glass? With your image magnified use the Grabber hand tool to move around the image. D) What do you think the ratio in the title bar means? E) Write the following ratios as a multiplication problem? Then solve the problem? 2:1 16:1 64:1 How many times do you need to click in the middle of the Great Red Spot (GRS) to take up the entire window? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Lesson 1c Jupiter Blues: processing the image: An introduction to Image Processing. In this mini-lesson you will process 2 images of the Great Red Spot (GRS). These two images have been extracted from 2 larger images showing the entire planet Jupiter. The images were taken through 2 different colored filters (red and Blue) by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The information below is for the two images you will be using: Image with file name=cyc5mapred.tif - map projection from cyc5red.tif. Centered on -22.66 deg. latitude nad 242.57 deg. longitude. Same sampling as the other maps. image at 953 nm, taken on Oct. 5, 1995 at 10:32:16 Universal Time Image with file name=cyc5mapblu.tif - map projection from cyc5blue.tif. Centered on -22.66 deg. latitude nad 242.57 deg. longitude. Same sampling as the other maps. image at 410 nm, taken on Oct. 5, 1995 at 10:48:16 Universal Time Your job is to discover, through image processing, features associated with the Great Red Spot. 1d) Launch NIH Image and open the image with file name cyc5mapred.tif 2d) Now open the second image, the same way you opened the first. The 2nd. file name is cyc5mapblu.tif 3d) Go to the Windows menu in the command line on the far right side and let go at the item "Tile Images". The images will be tiled side-by-side for your inspection. 4d) First, you are going to apply a different group of colors to the image of the Great Red Spot. Even though the colors are going to change, the luminosity values (v) will remain the same. You do this by changing the Look Up Table (LUT). Go to the menu called Options in the command line. Go down to the item called Color tables and drag over to the lateral menu. Go down to the item called Fire-1 and let go. You have just changed the Lookup Table (LUT) for one of your images. You can adjust the LUT with the LUT tool in the tools window. IT is the horizontal line with a vertical arrow sticking out top and bottom. Click on this tool and move up and down in the LUT window, noting the change. 5d) To prove to yourself that luminosity values do not change when applying different LUTs (groups of colors), choose one pixel out of your image and write down its x,y and pixel value. (note-remember to use the coordinate tool and the info table to get your data) x___ y___ v___ Now go Options to grayscale and remeasure that pixel's luminosity. Write down the values. x___ y___ v___ Next..... 6d) Another way to look for features of the GRS is to process the image with filters. Unlike LUT changes, filtering or processing an image directly impacts the images luminosity value. (note- to apply a filter to just one part of your images, select that part with the rectangle tool. It is the tool to the right of the magnifying glass in the tools window and looks like a row of marching ants when applied) In the program NIH Image you process images from the "Process" menu. Experiment with different LUT options and filter options on both images, getting a feel for what tools give the most information about the features known as the Great Red Spot. (NOTE- DO NOT SAVE ANY CHANGES TO ANY IMAGE WHEN CLOSING) 7d) Now close all images, without saving any changes. Re-open both images again. Go to and select "Load Macros" in the "Special" Menu in the command line. Select "More Macros" from the macro folder which should be in your NIH Image Folder. Now one of the selections in your special menu is "ASCII Dump". Now select a portion of one image that is about one tenth of an inch. With the selection made, go to the "ASCII Dump" in the "Special" Menu and let go. Click once back on the image with your selection and filter it once from the process menu. Now redue the ASCII Dump and compare the number tables. Is there a difference? (note- you can, with the same selection maintained, go to the "Export Selection as" in the "File" menu. In the Save as dialog box select "Text". Open up your favorite spreadsheet tool and graph the ASCII file). If so why? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Lesson 1d Jupiter Blues: Analyzing Jupiter one array of pixels at a time- Introduction to image processing NOTES FOR THE TEACHER The outcome of all these mini-lessons yields fruit in this lesson. You might want to split the students up into teams. The goal of this exercise (I called it the "Mystery Map game") is to choose a 49 pixel array (7x7) somewhere on the planet that the other team cannot find. The only information that each team will give is the hints sheet. On the hints sheet should be all the pixels, team names, opponent team names and magnification level. You should review the hints sheets if you have younger learners to make sure it is properly completed. If the learners are struggling with the array concept, print out an ascii (American Standards for Computer Information Interchange) dump and use the x,y lines to visually prompt them into recognizing the patterns occurring across each coordinates line. Finally fine adjustment of the rectangle tools selection area can be done more easily under high magnification. It is also easier to move the selection around. If learners are struggling with the scalability of a selection of pixels (they keep selecting arrays that are 50 by 50 instead of 7 by 7), ask them to zoom to fit the entire image to check their selections scales. Any selection more than a fraction of a millimeter, or so when zoomed to fit is to big a selection. Lesson 1d Jupiter Blues: Analyzing Jupiter one array of pixels at a time- Introduction to image processing You will find two more tools handy in your effort to analyze this image using NIH Image. They are the Coordinate Tool (I call it the cross hair tool) and the info window. The coordinate tool lets you pick one point on the image at a time very accurately. The info window displays information as you experiment with the image. In this activity we are interested in locating pixels using the x value, the y value and the luminosity or brightness value. The luminosity value is the pixel value. 1d) Start NIH Image and open the same image as before (cyc5blue w/txt.tif). 2d) Go to the menu labeled Windows, drag down that menu selecting info. The info window should pop up to the top of the desktop. 3d) Grab the info window by the title bar and drag it to a place on the desktop where it will remain visible after you click on the image window. (note- do not cover up the Tools window as you need to be able to select tools in this activity) 4d) Choose one feature of Jupiter to focus upon. 5d) Magnify the feature you have chosen to at least 16:1. 6d) Select the coordinate tool and move around the feature you are studying. Notice the changes that occur for the x and y values in the info table. Determine what plane or axis the x values are in by moving the cross hair up and down as well as side by side. (note- the correct plane will be that plane where the x value changes in the info window. Determine what plane or axis the y values are in by moving the cross hair up and down as well as side by side. (note- the correct plane will be that plane where the y value changes in the info window. 7d) Choose an array or grid within your studied feature that is 7 pixels by 7 pixels. 8d) On a separate piece of paper, draw your grid and fill in, clearly, each square of the grid with that pixels three values; the x value, the y value and the pixel value of luminosity or brightness. Also, write down what level of magnification you used. Hints Sheet Date Period Team Names Opponent Team name Magnification Level = __ : __ x___ x___ x____ x____ x____ x____ x____ y___ y___ y____ y____ y____ y____ y____ v___ v___ v____ v____ v____ v____ v____ x___ x___ x____ x____ x____ x____ x____ y___ y___ y____ y____ y____ y____ y____ v___ v___ v____ v____ v____ v____ v____ x___ x___ x____ x____ x____ x____ x____ y___ y___ y____ y____ y____ y____ y____ v___ v___ v____ v____ v____ v____ v____ x___ x___ x____ x____ x____ x____ x____ y___ y___ y____ y____ y____ y____ y____ v___ v___ v____ v____ v____ v____ v____ x___ x___ x____ x____ x____ x____ x____ y___ y___ y____ y____ y____ y____ y____ v___ v___ v____ v____ v____ v____ v____ x___ x___ x____ x____ x____ x____ x____ y___ y___ y____ y____ y____ y____ y____ v___ v___ v____ v____ v____ v____ v____ 9d) Give your array and magnification values to another team and see if they can find the feature your choose? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ADVANCED IMAGING WORK There is clearly some features that are only visible when images are viewed in one wavelength or another (RGB). Download the image file named "jupiterWS.tif". It helps if the image is filtered with other than a Grayscale Look Up Table. Separate out the three slices:Red, Green, Blue and notice the difference in what each image reveals that is hidden in the other wavelengths. You can recombine the three slices by using the 8 bit color to RGB stacks in the stacks menu. jupiterWS.tif is a 1.8 meg file because it is a 24 bit (millions of colors) image. This will take a long time to download under best conditions, so start the download and make dinner. This advanced enrichment activity is correlated with activity 3A in the Teacher's Guide) go to the following URL address to get the file to your computer. http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/hst/scott/tiff/ Using your existing Mac skills, copy and paste into your favorite Works program and your new imaging skills. Discuss, using example images, what features are prominent, at what wave length and what you think is going on meteorologically. More advanced imaging is possible of course. You can use the Density Slice tool to measure any range of pixel values you desire. To use the tool, select it and use the LUT tool in the tool box to adjust the upper and lower bounds of the slice you are analyzing. You can check the upper and lower bounds by looking at the info window. You could for instance calculate the percentage of belts (dark bands) and zones (bright bands) are in association with the Great Red Spot. Another famous imaging tool is the Surface Plot in the Analyze menu. Try it, you will like it. This tool generates a surface plot of the pixel values for any selected area or entire image.

Text version of lesson plan.
Index of Images used in Lesson.
Introduction to Electronic Field Trips

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